What are the structural methods? Do you know several common building structures? You will understand them all after reading them.

There are many ways of building, so the architectural forms of our houses are all different. What are the common building structure methods? The more common construction methods in our lives mainly include frame structure, steel structure, reinforced concrete structure, brick-concrete structure, etc. In fact, when we buy a house, we should pay attention to the building structure, because the characteristics and performance of houses with different building structures are different, and their service life will also have an impact, so we must pay attention to this aspect, and I will give you the following Let’s talk about the characteristics of each method.

What are the structural methods

1. Brick-concrete structure

It is a building structure composed of load-bearing walls made of bricks or load-bearing blocks, and cast-in-place or prefabricated reinforced concrete floors. It is mostly used to build low-rise or multi-story residential buildings. The walls and columns of the vertical load-bearing structures in the building are made of bricks or blocks, and the columns, beams, floors, roof panels, etc. are made of reinforced concrete structures. In layman’s terms, a brick-concrete structure uses a small part of reinforced concrete and a large part of the brick wall to bear the load. This is currently the most constructed and most commonly used structure type in residential construction.

2. Reinforced concrete structure

Reinforced concrete structure housing refers to a house where the main load-bearing structure of the house, such as columns, beams, slabs, stairs, and roofs, are made of reinforced concrete, and the walls are made of bricks or other materials. The main load-bearing components including beams, slabs and columns are all made of reinforced concrete structures. This type of structure is mainly used in large public buildings, industrial buildings and high-rise residential buildings. This structure has the advantages of good seismic performance, strong integrity, strong corrosion resistance and fire resistance, and durability. The bay and depth of the room are relatively large, and the indoor activity space is also increased accordingly, and the indoor space is separated more freely. Reinforced concrete structure buildings can be divided into two categories according to their construction methods: cast-in-place reinforced concrete structures and prefabricated reinforced concrete structures.

3. Steel structure

The main load-bearing structures are generally constructed of steel materials, including suspension structures. Such as steel factories, large stadiums, etc. The main load-bearing components are all made of steel. It is light in weight and can build ultra-tall skyscrapers. It can also be made into a space with large span and high clear height, which is especially suitable for large public buildings.

4. Frame structure

Buildings with beams, columns, and slabs as load-bearing structures. Reinforced concrete is poured into load-bearing beams and columns, and then prefabricated aerated concrete, expanded perlite, pumice, vermiculite, pottery and other lightweight plates are used to divide the rooms. Prefabricated dwellings. Suitable for large-scale industrial construction.

5. Frame-shear wall structure

It is a structure in which shear walls and frames jointly bear vertical and horizontal effects. It is also called a frame seismic wall structure. The difference between frame seismic wall structure and frame structure is that in order to increase the rigidity and integrity of the building, a part of the unstressed infill wall in the frame structure is turned into a reinforced concrete wall that can withstand wind and earthquake horizontal loads. It is mostly used to build mid-rise and high-rise buildings.

What are the characteristics of common construction methods?

1. Characteristics of brick-concrete structure

The load-bearing structures of frame structure houses are beams, slabs, and columns, while the load-bearing structures of brick-concrete houses are floor slabs and walls. In terms of firmness, theoretically speaking, the firmness that a frame structure can achieve is greater than that of a brick-concrete structure. Therefore, when designing a building for a brick-concrete structure, the height of the building cannot exceed 6 floors, while the frame structure can reach dozens of floors. However, in the actual construction process, the state stipulates the earthquake resistance level that buildings must reach. Whether it is brick-concrete or frame, it must reach this level. Even if developers use frame structures to build houses, they will not do so in order to improve the sturdiness of the building. Increase investment, as long as it meets the earthquake resistance level. In terms of sound insulation effect, the sound insulation effect of brick-concrete houses is moderate. The sound insulation effect of frame structures depends on the choice of partition materials. Some advanced partition materials have better sound insulation effects than brick-concrete houses, while ordinary partition materials such as cement The sound insulation effect of hollow boards and the like is very poor.

2. Characteristics of reinforced concrete structures

The main materials of reinforced concrete are sand and stone, while cement and steel bars account for a smaller proportion. Sand and stone can generally be provided by the location of the building, and the origins of cement and steel are also widely distributed in our country. The steel bars are tightly wrapped in concrete and will not rust. Even under aggressive media conditions, special processes can be used to make corrosion-resistant concrete, thus ensuring the durability of the structure. Reinforced concrete structures, especially cast-in-place structures, have good integrity, which is of great significance for buildings in earthquake zones. They also have strong ability to withstand storms, explosions and impact loads. Concrete is a poor heat transfer body, and the steel bars have sufficient protective layers. When a fire occurs, the steel bars will not reach the softening temperature quickly and cause instantaneous structural damage. Freshly mixed concrete is plastic and can be made into components of various shapes according to project needs, which facilitates the reasonable selection of structural forms and component sections.

3. Characteristics of steel structure

Steel has high strength and high elastic modulus. Compared with concrete and wood, the ratio of its density to yield strength is relatively low. Therefore, under the same stress conditions, the steel structure has a small component section, light weight, easy transportation and installation, and is suitable for large spans, high heights, and heavy loads. Structure. Suitable to withstand impact and dynamic loads, and has good seismic resistance. The internal structure of steel is uniform and close to isotropic homogeneous body. The actual working performance of the steel structure is relatively consistent with the calculation theory. Therefore, the steel structure has high reliability. Steel structural components are easy to manufacture in factories and assemble on construction sites. The factory’s mechanized manufacturing of steel structure components has high precision, high production efficiency, fast construction site assembly, and short construction period. Steel structure is a structure with the highest degree of industrialization. Because the welded structure can be completely sealed, it can be made into high-pressure vessels, large oil pools, pressure pipes, etc. with good air tightness and water tightness. The demolition of steel structure buildings will produce almost no construction waste, and the steel can be recycled and reused.

4. Frame structure characteristics

The space separation is flexible and the weight is light, which is conducive to earthquake resistance and material saving; it has the advantage of being able to flexibly match the building layout, which is conducive to arranging building structures that require larger spaces; the beams and column components of the frame structure are easy to standardize and finalize, which is convenient for An assembled integral structure is adopted to shorten the construction period; when a cast-in-place concrete frame is used, the integrity and stiffness of the structure are better, and good seismic effects can be achieved if the design is well handled, and the beams or columns can be poured into various shapes as required. cross-sectional shape. The stress concentration of the frame nodes is significant; the lateral stiffness of the frame structure is small and it is a flexible structural frame. Under the action of a strong earthquake, the horizontal displacement of the structure is large, which can easily cause serious non-structural damage; the amount of steel and cement is large, and the components The total number of buildings is large, the number of hoistings is high, the workload of joints is large, the processes are many, and manpower is wasted. The construction is greatly affected by seasons and the environment; it is not suitable for building high-rise buildings, and it may cause difficulties and impact on the layout and space processing of the building. The rational use of building space also tends to be unreasonable in terms of material consumption and cost, so it is generally suitable for building houses with no more than 15 floors.

5. Characteristics of frame-shear wall structure

The frame structure building layout is more flexible and can form a larger space; the frame-shear wall structure combines the two and complements each other. Shear walls are arranged between certain columns of the frame, thus forming a larger load-bearing capacity and a more flexible building layout. A more flexible structural system; shear walls are arranged between certain columns of the frame, thereby forming a structural system with greater load-bearing capacity and more flexible building layout. In this structure, the frame and shear walls work together, with the frame mainly bearing vertical loads and the shear walls mainly bearing horizontal loads. The ability to resist horizontal loads is poor, whereas the opposite is true for shear wall structures.

To sum up, the advantages and disadvantages of each construction method are different, and each has its own characteristics. Low-rise houses with less than 5 floors generally adopt concrete brick structures, while small high-rise buildings with less than 15 floors can generally adopt frame structures. . For relatively high floors, scissor wall structures are generally chosen. The above is the sharing of all the structural methods and their characteristics. After reading this, everyone should have a general understanding.

You may also like...